Researchers at the Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute are leading a multi-institutional research project to better understand and treat squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin, one of the most common skin cancers in Australia.
Thanks to three-year funding from the National Health and Medical Research Council, IHMRI’s Senior Professor Marie Ranson and Associate Professor Bruce Ashford, who are leading the project, are investigating molecular changes of the cancer to determine what causes it to spread.
“SCC of the skin is so common amongst Australians, but we still don’t know why some tumours spread to nearby lymph nodes and why others do not,” Senior Professor Ranson said.
“Our aim is to decipher the molecular changes that distinguish those SCCs that are likely to spread so that clinicians can identify and treat these patients early.”
A better prognosis, more targeted treatments
The project aims to achieve better prognosis and more targeted treatments for one of Australia’s most common cancers and major healthcare burdens.
Patients with aggressive variants of cutaneous SCC often present late, when the cancer has already spread through lymphatics to nodes in the neck.
“When patients present at such a late stage, we have to treat with both radical surgery and high dose radiotherapy. Even then, the chances of surviving beyond five years are only about 50%,” A/Professor Ashford explained.
“We want to be able to identify whether there are early markers that distinguish whether we can avoid unnecessary surgery, or whether we should use even more aggressive treatment.”
Understanding the genetic landscape
Senior Professor Ranson, A/Professor Ashford and the IHMRI team are unravelling the genetic landscape of SCC through the process of whole genome sequencing. Through this process, researchers can see if there is a signature within these tumours that can help predict which ones will spread.
“If we find a signature, it will enable clinicians to more accurately identify at-risk patients to diagnose and treat metastatic SCC early. We have so far completed whole genome sequencing on 33 patient specimens and are completing RNA sequencing of these tumours,” Senior Professor Ranson explained.
The tumour samples are collected from surgery at both Wollongong Hospital and the Chris O’Brien Lifehouse in Sydney. Whole genome sequencing works by comparing cancer cells to normal cells to check for mutations in the DNA. If researchers can find a common pattern of mutation within the cancers, it will help identify which tumours will spread.
“Over three years we hope to examine between 60 and 80 patient specimens. This grant also helps fund the employment of bioinformaticians to help us understand the complex nature of DNA variation in this deadly disease,” said Senior Professor Ranson.
The project is a collaboration with partners, Associate Professor Ruta Gupta from Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, and Professor Narayanan Gopalakrishna Iyer from the National Cancer Centre in Singapore.